Blog Archive

September 10, 2013

Vietnam cassava achievement and learnt lessons

FOOD CROPS. Vietnam cassava achievement and learnt lessons. Nguyen Van Bo, Hoang Kim, Le Quoc Doanh, Tran Ngoc Ngoan, Bui Chi Buu, Rod Lefroy, Le Huy Ham, Mai Thanh Phung, Tran Vien Thong. The report provides information on Production and consumption of cassava over the world and in Vietnam; Achievement and learnt lessons from Vietnam cassava in a half decade of reservation and development; Conclusion. This is the first speech of three of “Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow ”. Key workds: Vietnam cassava, cassava production and consumption, achievements and learnt lessons.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a crop for food, animal feed, starch processing and currently main raw materials for biofuel processing which has high comparative advantage of many countries in the world and Vietnam. In 2011, there are 100 cassava production countries over the world with total areas of 19.64 million ha, average fresh root yield of 12.83 tons/ha, production of 252.20 million tons (FAO, 2013a)[5]. In Vietnam, cassava is an important food crop which ranks the third in terms of production after rice and maize. In 2011, the national cassava area reached 560,000 ha, average yield of 17.63 ton/ha, production of 9.87 million tons (GSO, 2013a) [32]. Global Cassava Conference held in Belgium in 2008 delivered the message: “Cassava is a gift of the world, opportunity for poor farmers and challenge to scientists”(Claude M. Fauquest 2008)[4]. Instructions on using cassava to produce starch, bio-ethanol, modified starch, animal feed and bio-film are increasingly interested. Vietnam is complimented on spectacular cassava yield which was increased 400% from 8.5 tons/ha in 2000 to 36 tons/ha in 2011 in many smallholders, according to press release “Cassava’s huge potential as 21st century crops ” by FAO in May 2013, (FAO, 2013b) [6]. Cassava dried chips and starch of Vietnam are ones of ten key export products. Vietnam currently has 13 bio-ethanol factories with capacity of 1067.7 million litres of bio-ethanol per year, 66 industrial starch processing factories, more than 2000 manual processing units (Hoang Kim, Le Huy Ham et al. 2013) [12]. Cassava is a choice of many poor smallholders and people who are living in drought, bad fertile soil and a choice of many processing and trading enterprises thanks to its high profits, easy growing, less caring, low cost, easy harvest and process. Cassava producing, processing, consuming, researching and developing are opportunities, prospects of farmers and enterprises of Vietnam as well as many coutries in the world, however, cassava, at the same time, faces many risks and constraints.

This report provides general information on Production, consumption of cassava in the world and Vietnam; Achievement and cassava learnt lesson of Vietnam in a half decade of reservation and development; Conclusion. This is the first in series of three speeches: “Vietnam cassava, reservation and development”.

Cassava production, consumption in the world and Vietnam

Cassava – a 4F crop of the 21st Century. Cassava is a food crop with 252.20 million tons in production, the 5th rank after maize (883.46 million tons), rice (722.76 million tons), wheat (704.08 million tons) potato (374.38 million tons). 66% of cassava is planted in Africa, 20% in Asia and 14% in Latin America (FAO, 2013) [5]. Cassava is food of more than one billion people in the world, particularly in Africa where cassava is a main food crop. Cassava is a feed crop, flour/ starch processing crop for MSG, instant noodle, candies, sirup, beverage, packages, carton board, pharmaceutical additives, bio-film, soil moisture holders and a main inputs for processing bio-fuel with high comparative advantage (Figure 1 & Figure 2).

Figure 1: Cassava world production in 2008 (FAO 2010, cited by Hoàng Long)

Figure 2. Main crop world production in 2011 (FAO, cited by Hoàng Kim)

Cassava world production. Africa leads cassava production until 2011 reached 140.97 million tons, accounted for 55,90 % total world production of 252.20 million tons. Nigerial is top ranking in this continent with 52.40 million tons in 2011. Asia cassava production is accounted for 30 % of total world production with 3.91 million ha, average yield of 19.60 tons/ha and production of 76.68 million tons. Cassava plays an important role in economy of Thailand, Indonesia, China, Philippines. America is the third cassava production region in the world. Cassava areas in America increased from 2.54 million ha in 2000 to 2.85 million ha in 2005 then decreased to 2.67 million ha in 2011. Average yield of America is 12.88 ton/ha, production is 34.36 million tons in 2011. Brazil is the most production of this continent with 1.74 million ha in 2011, accounted for 65 % cassava areas in America (FAO, 2013) [5].

Ten countries leading cassava production in the world in 2011 are Nigeria 52.4 million tons. Brazil 25.44 million tons, Indonesia 24.00 million tons, Thailand (21.91 million tons). Republic of Congo (15.56 million tons) Angola (14.33 million tons), Ghana (14.24 million tons), Vietnam (9.87 million tons), India (8.00 million tons), and Mozambique (6.26 million tons).

Figure 3 Vietnam cassava production in comparison with four leading countries
(Hoàng Kim et al. 2013b)

Cassava areas of 10 countries mentioned above are respectively 3,73; 1,74; 1,18; 1,13; 2,17; 1,07; 0,89; 0,56; 0,22; 0,97 million ha. (FAO 2013 a) [5].

Global cassava production trend. Cassava production increases very fast from 162.48 million tons in 1995 to 252.20 million tons in 2011. Cassava area in 1995 was 16.46 million ha increased to 19.64 million ha in 2011. The world average cassava yield in 1995 was 9.87 ton/ha, increased to 12.84 ton/ha in 2011. (Table 1).

The world cassava import and export. Three leading export countries are Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia. Thailand accounts for 60- 85% total global cassava export in recent years, followed by Indonesia and Vietnam. Recently Cambodia cassava becomes a prospective export product. China is the most cassava importer for bio-fuel, modified starch, animal feed and pharmaceutical food industries. Main export markets of Thailand are China, Taiwain, Japan and EU with 40% of starch, 25% dried chip and pellets (Hoang Kim, Nguyen Van Bo et al. 2010a)[14].

Cassava market projection. According to cassava global market research of FAO and IFPRI, global cassava production will reach 275,10 million tons in 2020 projectively, mainly in developing countries with 274.7 million tons, in developed countries with 0.40 million tons. Cassava consumption in developing countries will be 254.60 million tons while 20.5 million tons in developed countries. Total cassava volume used for food will be projected at 176.3 million tons and animal feed at 53.4 million tons. Annual demand growth on cassava for food and animal feed are 1.98% and 0.95%. Africa will be still a lead continent with production of 168.6 million tons in 2020. Of which, the volume using for food will be 77.2 %, and animal feed will be 4.4 %. Latin America in period of 1993 - 2020, annual consumption growth rate is tentatively at 1,3 %, in comparison with Africa at 2.44 % and Asia at 0.84 – 0.96 %. Cassava continues to maintain its important role in many Asian countries particularly in Southeast Asia where its cassava areas is the third after rice and maize and its total production is the third after rice and sugar cane. Cassava production trends depend on crop competitiveness. Main solutions are to increase cassava yield through adoption of new varieties and advanced technology (Hoàng Kim, 2013a) [11].

Cassava production in Vietnam. Cassava is important income sources of poor farmers thanks to its easy cultivation, low requirement on soils, low investment costs, suitability to bio-ecology and farmer’s livelihoods. Cassava is widely grow from the North to the South of Vietnam with more than half of million ha (Table 2) and production of almost 10 million tons (table 3).

+ North Central Coast and South Central Coast: Cassava areas in 2011: 168,600 ha (30,10 % total areas), yield: 17.66 ton/ha and production: 2,977,900 tons of fresh roots (30,15 % total production). The most areas in Binh Thuan, Nghe An, Quang Ngai and Phu Yen.

+ Central Highland Region: Area in 2011: 154,600 ha (27,60 % total area), Yield 16.70 ton/ha, production 2,582,200 tons of fresh roots (26.15 % total production). Cassava is more planted in Gia Lai, Kon Tum, Dak Lak and Dak Nong

+ North provinces: Areas in 2011: 117,200 ha (20.92 % total areas), yield: 12.36 ton/ha, production: 1,448,900 tons of fresh roots (14.67 % total production). Most cultivated in Son La, Yen Bai and Hoa Binh.

+ South Eastern region: Area in 2011: 99,000 ha (17.68 % total area), yield: 25.34 ton/ha the highest in the country, production is 2,536,500 tons of fresh roots (25,68 % total production). Most planted in Tây Ninh, Bình Phước, Đồng Nai, Bà Rịa – Vũng Tàu and Bình Dương.

Figure 4 Graph: Areas of cassava by regions of Vienam.

Figure 5 Vietnam cassava Areas, production (2001 – 2011).

High cassava export turnover in Vietnam. According to custom data, in 2010 total export cassava in 2010 was 1,677 thousand tons cassava and cassava based products. Turnover of 556 million USA. Of which cassava chips accounted for 56,8%, cassava starch: 42,9%. Processed product export is growing and raw product export is decreasing are good signal in the context of many national industries need raw materials and cassava starch price is strongly increasing in the international market. China is the largest market of Vietnam cassava in 2010 accounted for 94,8 % total cassava chip turnover (196.5 million USA) and 90 % of total export of cassava starch (315.4 million USD) (Food crop system of Vietnam, 2011a) [7]. Cassava and cassava based product exports of Vietnam in 2011 was 2.68 million tons (960.2 million USD). In the end of 2012 exports of this product group was 4.23 million tons, increased 57.7% and valued at 1.35 billion USD, increased 40,8 %. China maintains the main market of Vietnam cassava with 3.76 million tons, increased 54.4 % in comparison with previous year and accounted for 88.9 % total export of this product group (custom data, 2013) [31].

Vietnam cassava achievement and learnt lessons

Vietnam cassava achievement. Yield increasing in the half of recent century (1961-2011) is expressed in fig. 6. Vietnam cassava yield in comparison with the world yield (since 1975) is presented in fig. 7. Cassava production and yield of Vietnam significantly increase in recent years. The production in 2011 was 9.87 million tons from 559.80 thousand ha, average yield: 17.81 ton/ ha (GSO 2013)[32]. In 2000, cassav production was 1.98 million tons, yield was 8.35 ton/ ha while the production in 2011 increased 4.98 folds and the yield doubled.

Vietnam cassava yield growth. Cassava yield increased significantly recently. In 1976, the yield was 7.86 ton/ha, in 2000 was 8.35 ton/ha, close to Africa’s yield (8.65 ton/ha) but in 2011 the yield reached to 17.73 ton/ha, much more than the average one in Africa at 10.77 ton/ha and higher than 12.92 tons/ha of America. The one of Vietnam now is lower than that of India (36.47 ton/ha), the leading country in cassava yield of the world, Cambodia (21.30 ton/ ha), Indonesia (20.30 ton/ ha) and Thailand (19.29 ton/ha) but cassava yield of many smallholders in Vietnam reach to 36.00- 50.00 ton/ ha, more than 400% than before.

Fig 6: Vietnam cassava yield in the past half century (1961-2011). Yield growth mainly from 2000.

Fig 7: Vietnam cassava yield and the world from 1975. Impressive yield growth rate since 2000 inVietnam

Tây Ninh is the typical province on yield and production increase that bring huse benefits for farmers and enterprises (Table 4).

Total natural land of Tay Ninh is 404,929 ha, of which agricultural land: 349,064 ha, with 12 types of soil, Grey poor fertile soil group accounted for 83.04% total natural areas, next to that is alluvial soil 5.41% and red yellow soil 3.58%. In 2011, rice area was 155.5 thousand ha (winter spring crop: 45.8 thousand ha, summer autumn crop: 52.9 thousand ha, main crop 56.8 thousand ha) average rice yield: 4,89 tons/ha, Production 760.7 thousand tons (GSO 2013b) [32]. Cassava, peanut, legume, sugarcane are main crops of the province which accounted for 35,0%, 24,2%, 21,3% and 13% in turn. Cassava contributes great deal in income sources of farmers. Good cassava variety is a basic factor which makes the change. Main variety is KM94 accounted for 60% total cassava areas, followed by KM98-5 about 40%, KM419 and others about 10% (Trần Viễn Thông 2011) [33].

Vietnam cassava reservation and development history. Before 1986, local varieties such as Gòn, Xanh Vĩnh Phú ... were mainly planted. These are good for eating but low yield (about 10 tons/ha), low starch content (20 - 25 %). From 1986 to 1990, HARC collected, selected and introduced three varieties of HL23, HL20 and HL24 mainly for food and feeds with fresh roots yield of 20 - 23 ton/ ha, planted in 70,000 – 80,000 ha annually in the south (Hoàng Kim, Trần Ngọc Quyền, Nguyễn Thị Thủy 1990) [21]. Xanh Vĩnh Phú and sloppy land cultivation practices were early piloted in the north (Nguyễn Văn Tiễn, Trần Ngọc Ngoạn, Đặng Thị Ngoan, Nguyễn Thế Hùng, Nguyễn Hữu Hồng 1994) [30 ]. Cassava contributed significantly into food security particularly in difficult stage of the country (Hoàng Kim, Phạm Văn Biên 1995) [20]. From 1988 to 2012, VNCP collaborated with CIAT and achieved huge results in cassava research and development (Phạm Văn Biên, Hoàng Kim 1998) [1). (Pham Van Bien, Hoang Kim et al. 2007) [2] (Hoang Kim, Nguyen Van Bo el al 2010) [14]. Eight good cassava varieties were introduced for approval and production. Of which there were 6 domestic and selected: KM60; KM94, KM95; SM937-26 (Trần Ngọc Quyền, Hoàng Kim et al 1995)[29] ; Trần Ngọc Ngoạn 2000 [28]; Trịnh Phương Loan, Trần Ngọc Ngoạn et al. 1995), KM98-1 (Hoàng Kim, Kazuo Kawano et al 1999) [19] KM98-7 (Trịnh Thị Phương Loan, Nguyễn Trọng Hiển et al 2008) [25]; Two of them were bred: KM140 (Trần Công Khanh, Hoàng Kim et al 2007, 2009, 2010) [23, 22] and KM98-5 (Trần Công Khanh, Hoàng Kim et al. 2009) [24 ].

Vietnam has become a distinctive model of Asia and the world in application of selective technology and breeding cassava and setup sustainable cassava production practices. Many good farmers as Hồ Sáu (Tây Hòa, Trảng Bom, Đồng Nai), Tống Quốc Thanh (Sa Nghe, Hảo Đước, Châu Thành, Tây Ninh), Trần Thị Quyền (Hà Tây), Nguyễn Thị Sáu (Hà Tây), Ngô Trung Kiên (Phổ Yên),…who planted cassava with high yield, high profits in many years and became reach thanks to cassava (Kazuo Kawano 2001, 2009) [9,10], Reinhard Howeler 2004, 2008 [34, 35 ]). “Vietnam is a main export agricultural products country and leading in somes with total export agricultural value of 25 billion USD per year. With more than half of million ha, cassava export value is 800-950 million USD per year. CIAT has significant contributions in this results by improving cassava sub-sector of Vietnam”.“At national level, cassava has become a main export product. Millions farmers have been benefited from changes in yield and profits. Variety material from CIAT through selective process and breeding cover 90% of total cassava area of Vietnam.” (Bùi Bá Bổng 2012) [3].

Vietnam cassava learnt lessons. Three lessons are withdrawn from Vietnam Cassava Program 6M, 10T, 1F (Hoang Kim, Pham Van Bien et al. 2003[18], Hoang Kim et al. 2013 [12 ]):
1) 6 linkages (6M in English)

1. Man Power Con người
2. Market Thị trường
3. Materials Giống mới, Công nghệ mới
4. Management Quản lý và Chính sách
5. Methods Phương pháp tổ chức thực hiện
6. Money Tiền

2) 10 experiences in transfer technology (10T in Vietnamese)
1) Thử nghiệm (Trials)
2) Trình diễn (Demonstrations)
3) Tập huấn (Training)
4) Trao đổi (Exchange)
5) Thăm viếng (Farmer tours)
6) Tham quan hội nghị đầu bờ (Farmer field days)
7) Thông tin tuyên truyền (Information, propaganda)
8) Thi đua (Competition)
9) Tổng kết khen thưởng (Recognition, price and reward)
10) Thành lập mạng lưới nông dân giỏi(Establish good farmers' network)

3) Nông dân tham gia nghiên cứu (Farmer Participatory Research - FPR)

Vietnam cassava was developed sustainably in the first years of the 21st century (2000-2013). Cassava achievement of Vietnam is huge: Cassava has been transformed from food crop, feed crop into 4F crop (Food, Feed, Flour, Fuel). At national level, cassava has become main export crop and presented in million smallholders thanks to changes in yield and profits. Cassava material from CIAT through selective and breeding process has covered more than 90% of total cassava areas of Vietnam. Learnt lesson of VNCP, 6M,10T and FPR are collaboration experiences that accelerated bringing advanced technology into production for million poor farmers.


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02. Pham Van Bien, Hoang Kim, Tran Ngoc Ngoan, Reinhardt Howeler and Joel J. Wang 2007. New developments in the cassava sector of Vietnam. In: CIAT 2007, Cassava research and development in Asia. Exploring New Opportunities for an Ancient Crop. R.H. Howeler (Ed.). p. 25-32

03. Bùi Bá Bổng 2012. 45th Anniversary of CIAT: Welcome from Vietnam

04. Claude M.Fauquest 2008. Cassava: A Gift to the World and a Challenge for Scientists. Paper presented at “Cassava meeting the challenges of the new millennium” hosted by IPBO- Ghent University, Belgium 21-25 July 2008.

05. FAOSTAT, 2013a. Diện tích, năng suất và sản lượng sắn trên thế giới . Ngày 10 tháng 03 năm 2013. PageID=567#ancor

06. FAO, 2013b. Cassava’s huge potential as 21st century crop. FAO Press Release
June 04, 2013, 10:20 P.M

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15. Hoang Kim, Nguyen Van Bo, Reinhardt Howeler and Hernan Ceballos 2008b. Current Situation of Cassava in Vietnam and the selection of cassava doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from CIAT. Paper presented at “Cassava meeting the challenges of the new millennium” hosted by IPBO- Ghent University, Belgium 21-25 July 2008.

16. Hoang Kim, Nguyen Van Bo, Keith Fahrne, Rod Lefroy, Reinhardt Howeler and Hernan Ceballos 2008a. Current situation of cassava in Vietnam and its potential as a bio - fuel . Paper presented at IFAD/ICRISAT Project Launching Meeting “Harnessing water –use efficient bio-energy crops for enhancing livelihood opportunities of smallholder farmers in Asia, Africa and Latin America” hosted by ICRISAT- Patancheru, 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India, 1-2 May, 2008.

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30. Nguyễn Văn Tiễn, Trần Ngọc Ngoạn, Đặng Thị Ngoan, Nguyễn Thế Hùng, Nguyễn Hữu Hồng 1994. Các biện pháp canh tác trên đất dốc, NXB Nông nghiệp, Hà Nội.

31. Thống kê Hải quan, 2013. Tình hình xuất nhập khẩu hàng hóa của Việt Nam tháng 12 và 12 tháng năm 2012. Ngày 30 tháng 3 năm 2013.

32. Tổng cục Thống kê, 2013. Diện tích, năng suất, sản lượng sắn của Việt Nam phân theo địa phương năm 2011. Ngày 9 tháng 6 năm 2013.

33. Tran Vien Thong, 2011, Results production of cassava in TayNinh 2000-2011 Orientation for 2012-2015. Paper presented at IFAD/ICRISAT Project Final Meeting “Harnessing water–use efficient bio-energy crops for enhancing livelihood opportunities of smallholder farmers in Asia, Africa and Latin America" Tay Ninh cassava field trips, 15 April.

34. Reinhardt H. Howeler, 2008 Background and general methodology used in the Nippon Foundation project. In: CIAT 2008. Integrated Cassava – base Cropping Systems in Asia- Working with Farmers to Enhance Adoption of More Sustainable Production Practices. Proceedings of the Workshop on the Nippon Foundation Cassava Project in Thailand, Vietnam and China held in Thainguyen, Vietnam. Oct 27-31, 2003. p 5-32

35. Reinhardt Howeler, 2004. Intergrated cassava-based Cropping Systems in Asia: Farming Practices to Enhance Sustainability. End of Project Report Second Phase of the Nippon Foundation Cassava Project in Asia 1999-2003. The Nippon Foundation- CIAT, 120 p.

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Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow
Tây Ninh hướng đến thâm canh cây mì bền vững

Trở về trang chính
Hoàng Kim, Ngọc Phương Nam, Thung dung, Dạy và học, Cây Lương thực, Học mỗi ngày, Danh nhân Việt, Food Crops News, CassavaViet,

June 16, 2013

Food Crops News 162

CASSAVAVIET.Food Crops News 162. Cassava's huge potential as 21st Century crop. FAO offers sustainable farming model to meet increased demand. Save and Grow, an environmentally-friendly farming model promoted by FAO, can sustainably increase cassava yields by up to 400 percent and help turn this staple from a poor people's food into a 21st Century crop, FAO said 28 May 2013; SAVE AND GROW: CASSAVA: A guide to sustainable production intensification (FAO, 2013); Food Crops News 160. (Photo: Thai Cassava / Piya Kittipadakul Dr.Gracer; Cornell Univ., Dr.Piya; Kasetsart Univ. and Dr.Ceballos; CIAT in cassava field). Friends join hands: Thai Cassava and CassavaViet; Food Crops News 161. FOOD CROPS NEWS. FoodCrops.VN Hệ thống Cây Lương thực Việt Nam, Photo: CassavaViet / HoangKim Farmers check their cassava crop in DakLak Vietnam, June 2013

FAO offers sustainable farming model to meet increased demand

Photo: ©FAO/Sia Kambou Farmers check their cassava crop in Chad
28 May 2013, Rome - Save and Grow, an environmentally-friendly farming model promoted by FAO, can sustainably increase cassava yields by up to 400 percent and help turn this staple from a poor people's food into a 21st Century crop, FAO said today.

In a newly-published field guide detailing Save and Grow's applications to cassava smallholder production, FAO noted that global cassava output has increased by 60 percent since 2000 and is set to accelerate further over the current decade as policymakers recognize its huge potential.

But using the inputs-intensive approach pioneered during last century's Green Revolution to boost cassava production risks causing further damage to the natural resource base and increasing the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for climate change.

The solution, says FAO, lies in the Save and Grow approach which achieves higher yields with improved soil health rather than with the heavy use of chemical inputs. Save and Grow minimizes soil disturbance caused by conventional tillage such as ploughing, and recommends maintaining a protective cover of vegetation over soil.

Instead of the monocropping normally seen in intensive farming systems, Save and Grow encourages mixed cropping and crops rotation, and predicates integrated pest management, which uses disease-free planting material and pests' natural enemies to keep harmful insects down, instead of chemical pesticides.

Spectacular results

The approach has yielded spectacular results in trials organized in Viet Nam, where farmers using the improved technologies and practices boosted cassava yields from 8.5 tonnes to 36 tonnes -- an increase of more than 400 percent.

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, through training in the use of healthy planting materials, mulching and intercropping, farmers attending field schools achieved yield increases of up to 250 percent.

In Colombia, rotating cassava with beans and sorghum restored yields where mineral fertilizer alone had failed.

Cassava is a highly versatile crop grown by smallholders in more than 100 countries. Its roots are rich in carbohydrates while its tender leaves contain up to 25 percent protein, plus iron, calcium and vitamins A and C. Other parts of the plant can be used as animal feed, and livestock raised on cassava have good disease resistance and low mortality rates.

One reason driving increased demand for cassava is the current high level of cereal prices. This makes it an attractive alternative to wheat and maize, particularly as cassava can be processed into a high-quality flour than can partially substitute for wheat flour.

Food security

But, together with its importance as a source of food and food security, cassava also has a range of industrial uses that give it huge potential to spur rural industrial development and raise rural incomes.

Cassava is second only to maize as a source of starch and recently-developed varieties produce root starch that will be highly sought after by industries.
Demand for cassava as a feedstock for the manufacture of bioethanol is also growing rapidly.

Another important consideration is that of the major staple crops in Africa, hardy, resilient cassava is expected to be the least affected by advancing climate change.

With Save and Grow developing countries can thus avoid the risks of unsustainable intensification while realizing cassava's potential for producing higher yields, alleviating hunger and rural poverty and contributing to national economic development.

Source: FAO 2013. Cassava's huge potential as 21st Century crop <>

A guide to sustainable production intensification (FAO, 2013)

Save and Grow: Cassava (FAO, 2013) is the first in a series of guides on the practical application of FAO’s ecosystem-based model of agriculture, which aims at improving productivity while conserving natural resources.

The guide shows how “Save and Grow” can help cassava growers avoid the risks of intensification, while realizing the crop’s potential for producing higher yields, alleviating hunger and rural poverty, and contributing to national economic development.

This Policy brief presents a summary of the 140-page guide, which can be purchased from:

ISBN 978-92-5-107641-5
140 pp. 182 x 257 mm, paperback
Download book (PDF, 3 MB)
Download summary (PDF, 1.7 MB)
How to order this book
Write to: publications-sales@fao.or

Source: FAO 2013.


Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow 1DakLak
by Hoang Kim, Nguyen Minh Anh, Pham Quang Chinh et al. 2013

Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow 2Daklak

Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow 3Daklak

Comment for Food Crops News 165 Kim on FaceBook.


FOOD CROPS NEWS 160 “Greeting from HoangKim Vietnam to Dr.Ceballos; CIAT and Dr.Gracer; Cornell Univ., Dr.Piya; Kasetsart Univ.and Thai Cassava Family”.Friends join hands: Thai Cassava and CassavaViet see more


FOOD CROPS NEWS 161. FoodCrops.VN Hệ thống Cây Lương thực Việt Nam, Photo: © CassavaViet/HoangKim Farmers check their cassava crop in DakLak Vietnam, June 2013.

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Mười kỹ thuật thâm canh sắn
Giống sắn triển vọng tại Việt Nam
Những giống sắn phổ biến ở Việt Nam
Giống sắn KM419 và KM140
Giống sắn KM419 ở Đắk Lắk

Trở về trang chính

Hoàng Kim
Ngọc Phương Nam
Thung dung
Dạy và học
Cây Lương thực
Học mỗi ngày
Danh nhân Việt
Kim on Twitter
Kim on Facebook

March 10, 2013

Anthony Bellotti and Cassava in Vietnam

CASSAVAVIET. “Tony was a dear friend and a scientist of the highest caliber, who dedicated his entire working life to the pursuit of development impact through agricultural research. We will miss you Tony!” Dr. Ruben Echeverria, Director General of CIAT said. Dr. Anthony Bellotti was a great teacher, outstanding scientist, and great friend for Cassava in Vietnam. We want to share the message from Ruben and some latest lecture and pictures of Tony on CIAT visit regarding cassava pests and diseases with others.

by Ruben G. Echeverría (CIAT E-Newsletter /7 March 2013)

It is with deep sadness that I announce the passing of Dr. Anthony Bellotti at his retirement home in Naples, Florida, after a battle with cancer that lasted several months. Tony was a dear friend and a scientist of the highest caliber, who dedicated his entire working life to the pursuit of development impact through agricultural research.

His long journey of commitment began in 1962, when he joined the first group of Peace Corps volunteers in El Salvador. For 2 years, he supervised projects dealing with the production of vegetables, tropical fruits, and small livestock. After earning an MSc at New Mexico State University, Tony returned to the Peace Corps in 1967, serving first as an assistant director in Paraguay and then as a training officer in California until 1970.

Like so many Peace Corps volunteers, Tony realized that to make lasting contributions he needed more knowledge. So, he embarked on doctoral studies in the Department of Entomology with a minor in Plant Breeding at Cornell University. After completing his PhD, Tony joined CIAT in Cali, Colombia, initially as a Rockefeller Foundation post-doc. He developed an extraordinarily productive career as Cassava Program entomologist, including an 18-month sabbatical at Embrapa, Cruz das Almas, Brazil – and also served at times as acting program leader. His work resulted in more than 300 scientific publications. After his retirement in 2006, Tony was awarded emeritus status but continued contributing generously to mentoring and occasional consultancies.

Tony leaves a legacy of enormous professional accomplishments. Through research teams formed with skill and care, he advanced the knowledge of cassava entomology from its infancy to maturity, opening the way for major contributions to improved livelihoods for cassava farmers. Tony’s single greatest scientific achievement involved his role in the introduction of a parasitic wasp from Paraguay to sub-Saharan Africa for biological control of the devastating cassava mealybug. The documented economic benefits of this work are valued in the billions of dollars.

Tony leaves a huge void in CIAT and around the world, having formed friendships and professional relationships through an international career that spanned more than half a century, including 40 years at CIAT. Tony led a rich life outside of work too – as an avid reader, New York Yankees fan, and congenial, supportive companion to a very large circle of friends in Cali.
More details about Tony’s life and work are available on a special page of CIAT’s website, where friends and colleagues can share their thoughts, memories, and photos. Please join us in honoring this true hero of science and incomparable friend to so many.

Joe Tohme and Clair Hershey will provide information on donations that can be made in Tony’s name after the family identifies the charity.

Please feel free to share this message with others.

We will miss you Tony!


Director General of CIAT

Latest lecture of Dr. Anthony Bellotti on Cassava in Vietnam

CASSAVAVIET. CIAT visit regarding cassava pests and diseases. "CIAT wants to send a small delegation to collect more information on the pest and disease issues affecting cassava in SE Asia, especially in Viet Nam and Thailand. The main people in the team are Dr. Tony Bellotti, who has been the entomologist at CIAT for decades, and Dr. Elizabeth Alvarez, who is the CIAT pathologist. Throughout their visit they will be accompanied by Dr. Tin Maung Aye, who runs our main cassava project in SE Asia. In addition, I will join parts of the visist and we hope that Kaith and Tiago may be able to join some parts of the visit"

Rod Lefroy (D.Phil)
Regional Research Leader, CIAT in Asia
PO Box 783, Vientiane, Lao PDR
phone: +856-21-770090 mobile: +856-20-5509-863

"... Dr Tony (Entomologist) and Dr Elizabeth (Pathologist) from CIAT and I will visit to Vietnam in the middle of November, from 15 to 22 Nov in Vietnam. As you know that there is a cassava disease problem in Vietnam and it seems to spread out very quickly in many parts of cassava growing areas in Vietnam. The main reason to visit Vietnam is that to get a better idea of the pest and disease problem on cassava in Vietnam. I believe that the coming trip will help us to fight against the pest and disease in the region. I am now organizing their trip to Vietnam to visit cassava planning provinces especially the serious disease affected areas in the provinces."

Dr. Tin Maung Aye,
(Who runs CIAT main cassava project in SE Asia)
CIAT, c/o FCRI, Dept. of Agriculture
Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
Office telephone: +66-02579-7551
Office telephone and fax: +66-02940-5541
Keith Fahrney
Tiago Wandschneider

From: Reinhardt Howeler CIAT-BANGKOK ciat-bangkok

To: "Jarungsit Limsila" , "Wang Wenquang" , "Wani Hadi Utomo" , "Marjuki" , "Sholihin" , "yudi widodo" , "Wargiono" , "Augustinus Omar Rahmanadi" , "Jonathan Schofield" , "Rod Lefroy" , "Tin Maung Aye" , "Keith Fahrney" , "Lao Thao" , "Thiphavong Boupha" , "Hongthong Phimmasan" , "Viengsavanh Phimphachanvongsod" , "Phoumi Inthapanya" , "Phanthasin Khanthavong"

, "Rob Kelly" , "Silinthone Sacklokham" , "Engku Ismail Engku Ahmad" , "Narul Nahar Esa" , "Tan Swee Lian" , "Algerico Mariscal" , "Dioscoro Bolatete Jr." , "Tran Ngoc Ngoan" , "Nguyen Vu Thai" , "Nguyen Thi Hoa Ly" , "Hoang Kim" , "Phuong Nguyen" , "Nguyen Huu Hy" , "Pham Thi Nhan" , "Nam Ho Dai" , "Khanh Ton That Minh" , "Tiago Wandschneider"

 Date: Tuesday, 17 February, 2009,

Dear friends and colleagues

You may be aware that two insects have been causing serious damage to cassava in Thailand during this past year. One is the spiraling white fly (Aleurodicus disperses), which has long existed in many countries in Asia, on many different crops, but seldom did serious damage to cassava. Last year the infestation was quite severe. Even so, this insect affects mostly the lower leaves and thus has less impact on yield. Spraying insecticides may be counterproductive as it may kill the biological control agents.

The second insect is more worrisome. In many parts of Asia we have had a minor problem in cassava with the striped-mealy bug, Ferrisia virgata, which caused only minor damage. However, late last year and especially during the current dry season in Thailand, there is a serious mealy bug infestation in various parts of the country. Dr. Bellotti, the CIAT cassava entomologist, who visited Thailand in October, suspected that the increased damage was done by one or more new species of mealy bugs, possibly Phenococcus manihoti and/or Phenococcus herrinni, which have also caused serious damage in Africa and Latin America, but have not previously been observed in Asia (including India). Thai entomologists agree that this is probably a new and more dangerous species, and they are trying to identify the exact species and possible biological control agents. Since CIAT/IITA collaboration during the 1980s was very successful in bringing a similar new infestation of P. herrinni in Africa under control, we may consider a similar effort in Asia with the possible introduction of effective biological control agents from Latin America into Asia. But before this is done, we first need to identify the exact species causing the damage and to get some indication of the seriousness of the problem and the extent of its spread. Thus, with this Email, I would like to request everyone to report to the CIAT-Bangkok office any serious or unusual infestations of both the whitefly and mealy bugs (or other insect or disease problems) on cassava in your area.

In addition, since mealy bugs are easily transported on planting material, it is very dangerous to take any stakes or vegetative planting material across borders, especially from Thailand, but even more so from Africa, Latin America or India (where cassava mosaic disease is a serious problem). Since these new insect pests have the potential to devastate the cassava industry in all of Asia, your help and collaboration is essential to bring this problem under control.

With best regards,


Reinhardt Howeler
Senior Expert
CIAT, c/o FCRI, Dept. of Agriculture
Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

For Vietnam:
Nguyen Van Bo,,
Ngo Vinh Vien,
Le Dinh Don
Hoang Kim,


January 9, 2013

Vietnam cassava breeding overview: the broad perspective

FOOD CROPS. Food Crops News 140 update CASSVAVIET. "Vietnam cassava breeding overview: the broad perspective" including: 1) Overview of cassava breeding in Vietnam 1975-2012; 2) The lessons learned from Cassava in Vietnam and. 3) Perspective and recommendation for project 2013-2020.

CÂY LƯƠNG THỰC. Sau Hội thảo Sắn Toàn cầu tại Bỉ đã được chúng tôi đề cập trong bài Đêm trắng và Bình minh đến Lễ kỷ niệm 45 năm CIAT với sự thành công sắn Việt Nam và các khởi động mới đây của Chương trình Sắn Quốc tế. Cây sắn là quà tặng của thế giới và cơ hội cho nông dân nghèo; Cây sắn là quà tặng của thế giới và thách thức đối với các nhà khoa học. Những vấn đề khủng hoảng năng lượng toàn cầu, an ninh lương thực, môi sinh - môi trường đang thách thức thế giới hiện đại. Những câu hỏi đặt ra nhằm cải tiến cây sắn là cây chịu hạn, giàu tinh bột và năng lượng, đề mang lại thu nhập tốt hơn cho người dân nghèo. Chúng tôi đúc kết bài viết: Tổng quan tạo chọn giống sắn Việt Nam 1975 - 2012 và tầm nhìn 2013-2020. Mục đích cung cấp thông tin tổng hợp chọn giống sắn đến quý đồng nghiệp, những người quan tâm và các nhà khoa học trẻ đang dấn thân cho sự nghiệp nông nghiệp, giáo dục và chấn hưng Tổ Quốc. Việc tạo chọn giống sắn đang đứng trước ngày mới bình minh và đối diện với những thách thức dấn thân mới.


Hoang Kim (1), Le Huy Ham (2), Manabu Ishitani (3), Hernan Ceballos (3), Nguyen Van Bo (2), Tran Ngoc Ngoan (4), Kazuo Kawano (3), Reinhardt Howeler (3), Rod Lefroy (3), Nguyen Phuong (1), Hoang Long (2), Nguyen Thi Le Dung (2), Tran Cong Khanh (2), Vo Van Quang (2), Dao Trong Tuan (1), Nguyen Minh Cuong (1), Nguyen Van Vu (2) and Nguyen Van Dong (2)

ABSTRACT Cassava breeding and varietal dissemination in Vietnam has made continuous progress. In Vietnam, cassava is now the fourth most important food crop and an important source of cash income for small farmers, who either use it for animal feeding or for sale to starch factories. In 2011, cassava production was about 9.87 million tonnes, up from only 1.99 million tonnes in 2000. This was the result of both area expansions, from 237,600 ha in 2000 to 559,800 ha in 2011, and marked increases in yield, from 8.36 t/ha in 2000 to 17.81 t/ha in 2011. There are now 68 cassava starch factories in operation with a total processing capacity of 8.8 million tonnes of fresh roots/year. Vietnam has recently developed an E10 policy requiring the production of 1,067 million liters of fuel-ethanol from 6.5 million tonnes of cassava fresh roots/year. Vietnam is now the second largest exporting country of cassava products while animal feed factories also contribute significantly to the increasing demand for cassava roots. Cassava yields and production in several provinces have more than doubled due to the planting of new high-yielding cassava varieties in about 504,000 ha, and the adoption of more sustainable production practices. During the past decade (1991-2000) the Vietnam Cassava Program (VNCP), in cooperation with CIAT, Vedan and other cassava processing factories, has developed and disseminated six new high- yielding varieties: KM94, KM98-1, SM937-26, KM95, KM95-3 and KM60. Since the period 2001-2011, a total of 24,073 cassava sexual seeds from CIAT and 37,210 seeds from 15 cross combinations made in Vietnam, 38 breeding lines (mainly from Thailand, China, CIAT and Brazil), and 31 local farmers’ varieties, have been planted. Of these, 98 of the best lines are now in the final stages of the selection process, and the most promising KM140, KM98-5 and KM98-7 has recently been released. Up to now, 10 promising new clones have been tested, of which KM419 very high promising will be selected for release (Hoang Kim et al. 2012). The objectives for further genetic improvement on cassava cooperative research project under the East Asia Joint Research Program (e-ASIA JRP) in Vietnam focus on: 1) genetic cassava transformation, gene and promoter discovery, selection doubled haploid lines derived from materials of CIAT/VIETNAM, and applying mutation in cassava breeding to increase the yield potential and starch content and obtain early harvest ability, sustainable disease resistance and to improve the nutritional value. 2) Selection and dissemination of high-yielding varieties with high starch contents and high tolerance of pest and diseases for South East (SE), Central Highland (CH), South Central Cost (SCC), and North Mountain (NM) regions of Vietnam. Research on integrated cultivation techniques and transfer of appropriate cultivation techniques for improved cassava varieties in smallholder farming systems for main regions to increase the productivity and economic efficiency of cassava production in different eco- regions; to focus on increasing a source of income and meeting the varied needs of rural communities for export and domestic use of bio ethanol, cassava starch, and animal feeds.

Key words: cassava breeding overview, perspective, cassava promising varieties; Vietnam. *Presentation to Kickoff Meeting of a Cooperative Research Project under the East Asia Joint Research Program (e-ASIA JRP) at AGI, Hanoi on Jan.8 and 9, 2013. The Oganization of: AGI/e-Asia JRP/RIKEN; Dr. Le Huy Ham, Director General of AGI; Prof.Dr. Motoaki Seki, Team Leader, Plant Genomic Network Research Team, RIKEN Plant Science Center; Dr. Kishida Eriko e-ASIA Special Program Coordinator

1. Nong Lam University (NLU), Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc dist., Ho Chi Minh city. email:,; mob.+84 903613024; website;;

2.Vietnam Academy Agricultural Sciences (VAAS), Thanh Tri, Hanoi,Vietnam, including Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI) and Institute of Agricultural Science for SVN (IAS)

3.International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia 4.College of Agro-Forestry (TUAF), Thai Nguyen University, Thai Nguyen, Vietnam

(Green Adress of KM419 in Daklak Địa chỉ xanh trồng mì cao sản KM419 ở Đăk Lăk) See more Food Crops News FoodCropvn Food Crops

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