Blog Archive

October 17, 2008

New developments in the cassava sector in Vietnam

Nguyen Văn Bo (1), Hoang Kim (2), Tran Ngoc Ngoan (3),
Nguyen Van Ngai (2), Reinhardt Howeler (4)and Hernan Ceballos (4)

ABSTRACT

Vietnam Cassava Program support by MARD in close cooperation with CIAT of the Nippon Foundation project, promoted the rapid multiplication and wide distribution of high-yielding and high-starch varieties, and the adoption of sustainable cassava production practices, especially in the Central Coast, Central Highlands and Northern mountains and uplands. Ten million stakes of new varieties, mainly KM94, KM98-5 and KM140, were distributed to various provinces in this project. Up to now, more than 350,000 ha of cassava in Vietnam were planted with new varieties; this corresponds to about 75 % of the total cassava area in the country. Cassava yields and production in several provinces have doubled, stimulated by the construction of new large-scale cassava processing factories. New high-yielding cassava varieties and more sustainable production practices have increased the economic effectiveness of cassava production. Many farmers have become rich by growing cassava. For example, in An Vien and Doi 61 communes in Dong Nai province, 97% of the agricultural land has poor gray sandy soil. Previously, farmers grew the old cassava varieties Gon and HL23 with average yields of about 9–12 t/ha. In recent years, by growing new high-yielding varieties and applying improved cultural practices, the average yield in this commune increased up to 16-32 t/ha. Many farmers are now growing varieties KM94, KM140 and KM98-5, obtaining 25-35 t/ha in areas of 3-5 hectares. In the Cat Lam village (Phu Cat district, Binh Dinh province), Bau Can village (Chu Prong district, Gia Lai province), Hong Ha village (A Luoi district, Thua Thien Hue province) of Central provinces of Vietnam, the total variable cost of cultivation in 2007 was about US$ 455- 567.5/ha, at an average root yield of 22.0 t/ha, the production cost would be US$ 20.68- 25.79 /t fresh roots. Gross income is US$ 1,155- 1,237.5 /ha. Net income is US$ 670 - 700/ha. On average, labour accounts for 59.9% of cassava production costs. In some regions, like the Binh Dinh and the Gia Lai, this may be as low as 52.8% and 68.7%, respectively. The average labour requirement is 125 mdays/ha. The second largest cost item is fertilizer, constituting 41.8% in Binh Dinh province and 24.7% in Gia Lai.

1 Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VAAS), nvbo@hn.vnn.vnn
2 Nong Lam University (NLU), Linh Trung, Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam, hoangkim_vietnam@yahoo.com; http://cassavaviet.blogspot.com
3 Thai Nguyen University (TNU), Thai Nguyen city, Vietnam; tnngoan@vnn.vn
4 International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia; h.ceballos@cgiar.org ; CIAT c/o FCRI, Dept. of Agriculture, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 Thailand, r.howeler@cgiar.org


INTRODUCTION

Vietnam Cassava Program support by MARD in close cooperation with CIAT of the Nippon Foundation project, promoted the rapid multiplication and wide distribution of high-yielding and high-starch varieties, and the adoption of sustainable cassava production practices, especially in the Central Coast, Central Highlands and Northern mountains and uplands.

Objectives: The study aims to supply a production map of cassava in Vietnam and the central, production cost and production technique of farmers and supply chains, with a view to describing the lessons learned from past development interventions and their implications for a strategy of future investment in cassava research and development

METHODOLOGY

Field surveys: In order to meet the scope of the study, we will have field surveys to get primary information on farmers, trades, and processors, do group discussions with staff of Department of Agriculture and Rural Development in seventeen provinces provinces (Thai Nguyen, Tuyen Quang, Phu Tho in the North mountain and upland; Ha Tay in Red River Delta; Thua Thien Hue in the North Central Coast, Lam Dong, Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Gia Lai and Kon Tum in the Central Highland, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Binh Dinh in the South Central Coast; Dong Nai, Binh Phuoc, Ba Ria – Vung Tau, Tay Ninh in the South-East region).



Choice of site: Inclusive of visits to seventeen provinces during Sep. - Dec. 2007, six provinces were chosen as the project site for analyzing and evaluating of cassava cropping systems, varieties, agronomic practices, labour use, crop utilization and farm income. The team group from TUAF, NLU, VAAS, CIAT have paid three visits to access and define the site in four provinces of Thai Nguyen, Tuyen Quang, Phu Tho, Ha Tay. Since then scientists from the Nong Lam University and Enerteam have paid three visits to access and define the site in three provinces of Binh Dinh, Gia Lai and Thua Thien Hue. Finally, Cat Lam village (in Phu Cat district, Binh Dinh province), Bau Can village (in Chu Prong district, Gia Lai province), Hong Ha village (in A Luoi district, Thua Thien Hue province) were chosen to be research site.



Colleting and analyzing data: Collecting of map cassava and analyzing secondary data of the research region; conducting general survey to identify cassava production zones and present cropping pattern; colleting economic data of production costs, cropping patterns performance at farm level (sample of good farmers: 2 good, 1 not good / province; techniques: sample of good farmers; seasonal issues: sample; selling: sample); analyzing data collected by Excel program with a view to describing the lessons learned from past development interventions and their implications for a strategy of future.



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

New Progress in Cassava Research and Extension
Up to now, more than 350,000 ha of cassava in Vietnam were planted with new varieties; this corresponds to about 75 % of the total cassava area in the country. Ten million stakes of new varieties, mainly KM94, KM98-5 and KM140, were distributed to various provinces in this project. Cassava yields and production in several provinces have doubled, stimulated by the construction of new large-scale cassava processing factories. New high-yielding cassava varieties and more sustainable production practices have increased the economic effectiveness of cassava production.



There are now 60 cassava processing factories in operation and another seven factories under construction, with a total processing capacity of 2.4-3.8 million tones of fresh roots/year. Total cassava starch production in Vietnam was about 800,000- 1,200,000 tones, of which 70% was exported and 30% used domestically.



Using cassava in bio- ethanol production is also a growing interest in Vietnam. Petrosetco, a division of PetroVietnam, plans to build two tapioca-based ethanol plants in southern and central Vietnam. The state-run company signed two separate deals with Japan's Itochu Corp. and UK's Bronzeoak Group last year. The joint venture with Itochu will see the set up of a plant with a 75 million litre annual capacity in southern part of the country. Petrosetco and Bronzeoak are investigating the possibility of a 150 million litre plant in central Vietnam.



http://cropsforbiofuel.blogspot.com

Many farmers have become rich by growing cassava.
For example, in An Vien and Doi 61 communes in Trang Bom district of Dong Nai province, 97% of the agricultural land has poor gray sandy soil. Cassava is the main crop (1,099 ha), followed by cashew (534 ha) and other minor crops. Previously, farmers grew the old cassava varieties Gon and HL23 with the average yield about 9 – 12 t/ha. In recent years, by growing new high-yielding varieties and applying improved cultural practices, the average yield in this commune increased up to 16-32 t/ha. Many farmers are now growing varieties KM94, KM140, KM98-5, obtaining 25-35 t/ha in areas of 3-5 hectares





In the Cat Lam village (Phu Cat district, Binh Dinh province), Bau Can village (Chu Prong district, Gia Lai province), Hong Ha village (A Luoi district, Thua Thien Hue province) of Central provinces of Vietnam, the total variable cost of cultivation in 2007 was about US$ 455- 567.5/ha, at an average root yield of 22.0 t/ha, the production cost would be US$ 20.68- 25.79 /t fresh roots. Gross income is US$ 1,155- 1,237.5 /ha. Net income is US$ 670 - 700/ha. On average, labour accounts for 59.9% of cassava production costs. In some regions, like the Binh Dinh and the Gia Lai, this may be as low as 52.8% and 68.7%, respectively. The average labour requirement is 125 mdays/ha. The second largest cost item is fertilizer, constituting 41.8% in Binh Dinh province and 24.7% in Gia Lai.










Lessons from CassavaViet

Six essential conditions for a successful cassava R&D program include: Materials, Markets, Management, Methods, Manpower and Money (6 Ms).

Main experiences in linking cassava R&D activities in Vietnam include:

1) Establishment of the Vietnam Cassava Program (VNCP) including advanced cassava farmers, researchers, extension worker, managers of cassava research and development projects, cassava trade and processing companies.
2) The establishment of on-farm research and demonstration fields (farmer participation research FPR)
3) Ten mutual link-up activities (10 T – in Vietnamese):







CONCLUTION:

Lessons from Vietnam (Trip report of Mr. Boma about Nigerian study tour to Thailand, Vietnam and China)

“Vietnam is a classic example of how cassava can contribute to rural industrialization and development.Previously, people were reluctant to grow cassava because they thought that cassava caused soil degradation and produced low profits. But in reality one hectare of cassava can produce 60-80 tones of fresh roots and leaves. The situation has changed because of the development of sustainable cultivation techniques and new high-yielding varieties with the availability of a large and growing market demand. Cassava has become a cash crop in many provinces of Vietnam. Cassava chips and starch is now being produced competitively, and cassava markets are promising. The combination of wide spread production of fresh cassava roots and the processing of cassava into chips starch and ethanol has created many jobs, has increased exports, attracted foreign investment, and contributed to industrialization and modernization of several rural areas”.

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